Topics of Interest Noble Prize And Its Winners
Raj Kumar Parashari 06 Nov, 2019 Views: 352
1. The Nobel Prizes were founded by Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) was a Swedish who was a multitalented genius. He was a chemist, an inventor, an engineer a philanthropist and an industrialist. He invented dynamite in 1866 and has lots of other mentions to his credit.
2. In his will dated November 27, 1895, Nobel dedicated a mammoth share of his fortune (31 million Swedish kroner (today about 265 million dollar)) to honour work by awarding prizes in five areas - Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature, and Peace.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences selects the Nobel Laureate in Physics and Chemistry, Karolinska Institute selects Nobel Laureate in the field of Physiology or Medicine, the Swedish Academy for the Nobel Prize selects Nobel Laureate in Literature, and a Committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Parliament selects for the Nobel Peace Prize. Thus as per his will Nobel Peace Prize is awarded by a Norwegian committee while the other four prizes were to be handled by Swedish committees.
In 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was given the task to select the Laureates in Economic Sciences starting in 1969.
3. The Nobel Prizes for Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature and Economics are awarded at a ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden, while the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded at a different ceremony in Oslo, Norway.
4. The prize consists of a medal,a personal diploma and cash worth 8 million Swedish kroner (roughly equal to $1.1 million US dollars as of october 2014). The Nobel medal features the image of Alfred Nobel on the face. The image on the reverse varies according to the institution awarding the prize.
5. The main inscription on one side of the medal for Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, and Literature Nobel Prizes reads: "Inventas vitam juvat excoluisse per artes," which in loose translation means - "And they who bettered life on earth by new found mastery." The verbatim translation is - "inventions enhance life which is beautified through art."
The inscription on the Nobel Peace medal is- "Pro pace et fraternitate gentium," which means - "For the peace and brotherhood of men."
6. The Nobel Prizes are announced in advance but distributed every year on December 10 to mark the death anniversary of Alfred Nobel.
7. There are a total of 597 Nobel awards have been given to 950 Nobel Laureates b/w 1901 to 2019.
8. The average age of all Nobel Laureates in all prize categories between 1901 and 2017 is 60 years.
9. Just 54 women in total have been awarded the Nobel Prize between 1901 and 2019. Marie Curie was the first woman to have been awarded a Nobel Prize in 1903.
10. The average age of Nobel laureates, across all prize categories, is 59. But the oldest prizewinner was 90-year-old Leonid Hurwicz, who won the Economics Nobel (technically called the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economics Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel) in 2007. The youngest winner is Malala Yousafzai from Pakistan. She won the Peace Prize in 2014 when she was 17 years old along with Kailsh Satyarthi from India.
10. The first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901. as given to Henry Dunant (Switzerland) and Frédéric Passy (France) for Peace.
11. Posthumous nominations can't be made for Nobel Prizes. If during consideration, the nominee dies, his name is removed. But if a person dies after being announced as the winner, a posthumous award is given.
12. More than three people can't share a Nobel Prize.
13. Till now, two have voluntarily declined to accept Nobel - Jean Paul Sartre for Literature in 1964 and Le Duc Tho for Peace in 1937. Le Duc Tho rejected the award given to him for Paris Peace Accords saying here was no actual peace in Vietnam.
14. In 1958, Boris Pasternak was awarded the Nobel in Literature. He first accepted the Nobel Prize but later declined the prize fearing the Soviet authorities.
15. The Curies (Marie and Pierre Curie) comprised a very successful 'Nobel Prize family'. Marie Curie herself was awarded two Nobel Prizes. Marie Curie herself was awarded two Nobel Prizes - In 1903, she along with Pierre Curie was awarded half the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
16. Three laureates were in prison when they received the award, all of them winners of the Nobel Peace Prize. German pacifist and journalist Carl von Ossietzky in 1935, Burmese politician Aung San Suu Kyi in 1991 and Chinese human rights activist Liu Xiaobo in 2010.
17. Physics winner Leon Lederman, who won in 1988 for his co-discovery of the muon neutrino, sold his Nobel earlier this year to cover medical care expenses. The buyer, whose identity was not released by the auction house, paid $765,000 for it. Only two Nobels have ever been sold during a winner’s life. Both such sales occurred in the past year.
18. Russian billionaire Alisher Usmanov paid $4.7 million to buy the gold Nobel medal awarded to biologist James Watson for his work deciphering DNA’s double helix, but he then gave the medal back to the laureate. Usmanov said the medal should remain with the winner and that the monies he paid for it should go toward research.
19. Adolf Hitler forbade three German Nobel laureates from accepting the Nobel Prize—Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939) and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939). Later, all of them eventually went on to receive their diploma and medal but not the prize cash.
20. When John Bardeen co-won the Physics Nobel in 1956 for helping develop a theory of superconductivity commonly known as the BCS theory (after its inventors’ initials), he left most of his family at home rather than bringing them along for the awards ceremony. “His son told me that his father wanted them all to stay in school and study for whatever tests they had,” explains Scientific American video editor, Eliene Augenbraun. “He was loath to take time off work himself.” The king of Sweden noted the absence at the ceremony and scolded Bardeen. The laureate promised he'd bring them "the next time." Then, in 1972 Bardeen indeed won a second Nobel (making him the third person in the history of the prize to win twice). That time, he made sure to bring his entire family. John Bardeen is the only Nobel Laureate who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice.
21. Frederick Sanger is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice, in 1958 and 1980.
22. Only two Nobel Prizes have been sold while the winners were still alive.
Leon Lederman, a Nobel Prize winner for his co-discovery of the muon neutrino, sold his prize to cover medical expenses for a whopping $765,000.
23. Linus Pauling is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes.
He was given the prize in Chemistry in the year 1954 and later in 1962, he received the Nobel Peace Prize.
24. Marie Curie is the only one woman who has been honoured twice, with the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics and the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
25. If a person dies after their nomination, they can still be awarded.
This occurrence has been recorded twice. Dag Hammarskjöld, Secretary-General of the United Nations, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 after he died in a plane crash in Africa.
26. It is known that so far 9 Indians/people of Indian origin have received Nobel Prize and the first Indian to receive the Nobel Prize was Rabindra Nath Tagore.